From this story about an academic researcher being sent to jail for using fabricated and falsified data in grant applications:
[Former University of Vermont professor of medicine Eric Poehlman] was accused of falsifying research in applications and papers for several projects, including the effect of menopause on women’s metabolism, the impact of aging, the study of metabolism in Alzheimer’s patients and the effect of endurance training on metabolism.
In a deal with prosecutors last year, Poehlman pleaded guilty in connection with one $542,000 grant. The government said he defrauded federal agencies out of nearly $3 million.
The Boston Globe reports Poehlman is only the second academic “charged with a federal crime for falsifying research results to get a federal grant”; the first was a “a University of Pittsburgh professor who was convicted in 1988 but did not serve time in jail.”